This contrasted Nicene Christianity, whose followers believe that God the Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit are three persons of one being (consubstantiality).  In Spanish, the name became Luis, in Italian Luigi (variant Ludovico), and in Hungarian Lajos.. These campaigns had added significantly to Clovis's domains, and established his dynasty as a major political and military presence in western Europe. The bishops saw themselves as the king’s natural advisers, and, even before his conversion to Catholic Christianity and his baptism at Reims (now in France) by Remigius, Clovis apparently recognized their rights and protected their property. Recent scholarship has revealed flaws in Gregory’s account of Clovis and raised questions about the ultimate purpose of the Histories.  After his death, Clovis was laid to rest in the Abbey of St Genevieve in Paris. When his grandchildren divided royal power 50 years after his death in 511, Paris was kept as a joint property and a fixed symbol of the dynasty.. Clovis’s kingdom began in the region encompassing modern Belgium and northeastern France, expanded south and west, and became the most powerful in Gaul. The Salian Franks were the first known Frankish tribe that settled with official Roman permission within the empire, first in Batavia in the Rhine-Maas delta, and then in 375 in Toxandria, roughly the current province of North Brabant in the Netherlands and parts of neighbouring Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Limburg in current Belgium. The kingdom which Clovis established, however, superseded its occasional individual parts and remained intact for centuries. Clovis incurred loss of $1.28 per share for the first quarter of 2020, narrower than the Zacks Consensus Estimate of a loss of $1.29 and the year-ago loss of $1.63 per share. :13 The cause for Clovis' canonisation was taken up once again in the Seventeenth Century, with Jesuit support, a vita and an account of posthumous miracles, in opposition to the controversial historical works of Calvinist pastor Jean de Serres who portrayed Clovis as a cruel and bloodthirsty king. There is such an orthodoxy with the Clovis points because the theory helps to support the believed planetary conditions which existed at the time. Favourite answer. Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in 508. “Furthermore, strong archaeological evidence amassed over the last few decades shows that people were in the Americas thousands of years before Clovis, but … Historians believe that Childeric and Clovis were both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda and were subordinate to the magister militum. This precedent led in the long run to the fall of his dynasty, for it was a pattern repeated in future reigns. If this sequence of events is correct, it reflects the intellectual and religious climate of late 5th- and early 6th-century Gaul. Join now. The best modern descriptions of the life and times of Clovis are The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. He had previously restricted his operations to minor raids, yet, this time the goal was subjugation. 11 months ago. For Catholics, he was the first major Germanic Catholic king, and Pope John Paul II celebrated a mass in Reims in 1996 in honour of the 15th centenary of his baptism. The significance lies in the fact that Clovis chose Catholicism as opposed to Arianism. :73, It has been suggested that the reason that the French state promoted the veneration of Clovis in the south was to establish a border cult that would cause Occitans to venerate the northern-led French state by venerating its founder. Recent scholarship has revealed some errors in Gregory's account, but it still stands as an important history and biography of the great Frankish leader. 3 Answers. These two Christian belief systems represent a theological power struggle within the Christian community during the transformation period. Clovis I, (born c. 466—died November 27, 511, Paris, France), king of the Franks and ruler of much of Gaul from 481 to 511, a key period during the transformation of the Roman Empire into Europe. A millennium and a half later he remains significant. , Clovis came to the realisation that he wouldn't be able to rule Gaul without the help of the clergy and aimed to please the clergy by taking a Catholic wife. The New Encyclopædia Britannica calls Clovis’ conversion to the Catholic faith “a decisive moment in the history of western Europe.” Why was this pagan king’s conversion so important? Following his conversion, many of his pagan retainers had defected to Ragnachar's side, making him a political threat. Clovis reported total revenues of $143 million, up almost 50% year over year. Clovis points were made for three or four centuries, then disappeared. While it may or may not have been his intention, this division was the cause of much internal discord in Gaul. By the time of the ascension of Clovis, Gothic Arians dominated Christian Gaul, and Catholics were in the minority. 3. On the other hand, Bernard Bachrach has argued that his conversion from Frankish paganism alienated many of the other Frankish sub-kings and weakened his military position over the next few years. The division of the Frankish kingdom among the sons of Clovis at his death in 511. :53–54, 59, Daly, William M., "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?". Catholicism offered certain advantages to Clovis as he fought to distinguish his rule among many competing power centers in Western Europe. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Clovis-I, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Clovis I, Christian Classics Ethereal Library - Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Clovis, Clovis - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). By his conversion to Christianity he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics. It understood the godhead in hierarchical terms. Clovis is also significant due to his conversion to Catholicism in 496, largely at the behest of his wife, Clotilde, who would later be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. The day’s price range saw the stock hit a low of $5.05, while the highest price level was $5.29. Two angels came down from Heaven with a banner of fleurs-de-lys for him, sent directly from God. He was born into paganism, two of his sisters were Arians (one married the Arian Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great), and his wife, Clotilda, like her sister, was Catholic but from a Burgundian royal family that included Arians. Clovis married the Roman Catholic Burgundian princess Clotilda and had five children with her.  William Daly, more directly assessing Clovis's allegedly barbaric and pagan origins, ignored the Gregory of Tours version and based his account on the scant earlier sources, a sixth-century "vita" of Saint Genevieve and letters to or concerning Clovis from bishops (now in the Epistolae Austrasicae) and Theodoric. The idea was to assemble all French people from all parts of the country around a common history or, should I say, a common legend. Finding himself in a precarious position this uncle, Godegisel, decided to ally himself to Clovis by marrying his exiled niece to the Frankish king. So did the culture that created them. , Prior to the battle, Clovis did not enjoy the support of the Gallo-Roman clergy, hence he proceeded to pillage the Roman territory, including the churches. The Pactus Legis Salicae, a written code combining customary law, Roman written law, Christian ideals, and royal edicts, likely originated during Clovis’s reign and had a long history of emendation and influence. , Around 493 AD, he secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. del Regno di Napoli. Though he was not the first Frankish king, he was the kingdom’s political and religious founder. The part of Gaul still under Roman control emerged as a kingdom under Syagrius, Aegidius' son.  The name is found in other West Germanic languages, with cognates including Old English Hloðwig, Old Saxon Hluduco, and Old High German Hludwīg (variant Hluotwīg). Before accepting Catholicism, he was interested in the Christian heresy Arianism, sympathetic with it, and perhaps even leaning toward adopting it. The king's Catholic baptism was of immense importance in the subsequent history of Western and Central Europe in general, as Clovis expanded his dominion over almost all of Gaul. It is believed that humans could not have made their way into North America before the time of the Clovis civilizations because their way would have been blocked by glacial ice. Clovis proceeded to follow to the Burgundian king and laid siege to the city, however, after some months he was convinced to abandon the siege and settled for an annual tributary from Gundobad. A son, Theuderic, was born prior to the marriage; his mother is unknown. :140 This shrine had a statue and a number of epitaphs and was probably where the veneration of St. Clovis began. His conversion to Catholicism was that of one man, not that of his kingdom, but it can be seen as pivotal in Frankish history. In a … Clovis met his enemies near the strong fort of Tolbiac. Clovis has been made important in the 19th century when an historiography was established together with education in the 3rd republic. Last edited on 25 December 2020, at 18:51, Frankish campaign against the Thuringians (491), Franco-Visigothic Wars § Burgundian_civil_war_(500–501), Franco-Visigothic Wars § Second Franco-Visigothic war (507–508), Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Naming as Instrument of Strengthening of the Dynastic Power in the early middle Ages (France, England, Vth –XIth Centuries)", "Iron Age Braumeisters of the Teutonic Forests". Clovis Spear Point, c. 11,000 B.C.E., flint, 2.98 x 8.5 x 0.7 cm, found Arizona © Trustees of the British Museum Clotilde had wanted her son to be baptized, but Clovis refused, so she had the child baptized without Clovis's knowledge. According to the traditional and highly stylized account by Gregory of Tours that is now generally questioned by scholars in…, …that of the Frankish leader Clovis by his Catholic Burgundian wife Clotilda and the Gallo-Roman bishop Remigius of Reims about the turn of the 6th century, and that of Aethelberht of Kent by St. Augustine of Canterbury.…. 9 months ago. The ubiquitous appearance of Clovis points suggests that they were useful and efficient tools, helping these people spread quickly and successfully. And thus Armorica and her fighters were integrated into Frankish realm.  The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism (as opposed to the Arianism of most other Germanic tribes) led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples; to religious unification across what is now modern-day France, Belgium and Germany; three centuries later, to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome; and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great, to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire. Clovis, like his father, dealt politically and diplomatically with the Catholic bishops of Gaul. His dynasty, the Merovingians, survived for more than 200 years. c. 497. Thirty years later Clovis was buried next to his contemporary St. Geneviève in the Church of the Holy Apostles that he built in Paris, and he was joined years later by his wife, St. Clotilda. :106:101, St. Clovis had no known official canonisation, neither was he beatified, so his sainthood was only ever recognised by popular acclaim. Why was the Clovis important during the dark ages? Clovis was born a pagan but converted to Roman Catholicism. Relevance. , In 507, following Vouillé, Clovis heard about Chararic's plan to escape from his monastic prison and had him murdered. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Gregory places Clovis’s baptism in 496 and characterizes his subsequent battles as Christian victories, particularly the engagement with the Visigoths in 507 that has long been identified with Vouillé but now is believed to have occurred at Voulon near Poitiers, France. Thus, you must learn more about him either for his reign or controversial life. However, Gregory and other contemporary authors were not wholly wrong in describing Clovis, a warrior king, as a religious figure. Clovis was the son of Childeric I, a Merovingian king of the Salian Franks, and Basina, a Thuringian princess. The historical Clovis remains a shadowy figure: a warrior who solidified a kingdom, corresponded with bishops, and converted to Catholic Christianity. Battle of Tolbiac. , In the same year, Clovis convinced Prince Chlodoric to murder his father, earning him his nickname. Clovis was eager to subdue the political threat to his realm and crossed to the Burgundian territory. :59 The most notable attempt, led by King Louis XI and modelled on the successful canonisation campaign of Louis IX, occurred during a conflict with the Burgundians. Clovis' and Clotilde's fourth son. While he was not the first Frankish king, he was the kingdom’s political and religious founder. Clovis I The Frankish king Clovis I (465-511) founded the Merovingian kingdom of Gaul, the most successful of the barbarian states of the 5th century. This advocacy may also reflect a deep-seated communal memory of a religiously diverse kingdom and the daunting task of converting it. :130 There were also known to be shrines dedicated to Clovis in Église Sainte-Marthe de Tarascon and Saint-Pierre-du-Dorât. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This put them in the north part of the Roman civitas Tungrorum, with Romanized population still dominant south of the military highway Boulogne-Cologne. While Clovis sites are found throughout North America, the technology only lasted for a brief period of time. These later political, linguistic, and cultural entities became the Kingdom of France, the myriad German States, and the semi-autonomous kingdoms of Burgundy and Lotharingia. The Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Denis (where Clovis was buried) had a shrine to St. Clovis to the east of the main altar. By deciding to be interred at Paris, Clovis gave the city symbolic weight. Clovis succeeded his father to become king at the age of 15 in 481, as deduced from Gregory of Tours placing the Battle of Tolbiac (Zülpich) in the fifteenth year of Clovis's reign. Lack of papal approval; debated violent character; interference from the French state.  But just to be absolutely certain about retaining the loyalties of the Catholics under Visigoths, Clovis ordered his troops to omit raiding and plunder, for this was not a foreign invasion, but a liberation.. Clovis had been a king with no fixed capital and no central administration beyond his entourage. When Clovis finally converted, he becomes for Gregory a “new Constantine,” the emperor who Christianized the Roman Empire in the early 4th century. His band of warriors probably numbered no more than half a thousand. His dynasty, the Merovingians, survived more than 200 years, until the rise of the Carolingians in the 8th century. :54 The veneration of St. Clovis was not exclusive to France as a print by the Holy Roman woodcut designer Leonhard Beck made for the Habsburg monarchs depicts Clovis as St. Chlodoveus, St. Boniface's Abbey in Munich depicted St. Chlodoveus as a saint worthy of emulation because of his advocacy,:239 and the Florentine Baroque painter Carlo Dolci painted a large depiction of St. Clovis for the Imperial Apartment in the Uffizi Gallery. Senior Program Officer in the Enterprise Office of the National Endowment for the Humanities in Washington D.C. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.  To the French people, he is the founder of France. The Roman Law was written with the assistance of Gallo-Romans to reflect the Salic legal tradition and Christianity, while containing much from Roman tradition. Clovis (Latin: Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlodowig; c. 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. , In 496 the Alamanni invaded, some Salians and Ripuarians reguli defected to their side. They combatted paganism and the ancient traditions that it embodied, stamped out heresy, and attempted to convert Gaul’s Jewish communities. c. 491: Clovis completes the conquest of the kingdom and turns his attention elsewhere. Best Answers. , The Frankish name *Hlodowig is at the origin of the French given name Louis (variant Ludovic), borne by 18 kings of France, via the Latinized form Hludovicus (variants Ludhovicus, Lodhuvicus, or Chlodovicus). Clovis and Christianity: After the fall of the Roman Empire, there was a void in Western Europe.  This battle is viewed as bringing about the end of the rump state of the Western Roman Empire outside of Italy. Clovis Oncology intends to use the net proceeds from the sale of the New 2024 Notes for general corporate purposes, including repayment, repurchase or refinance of its debt obligations, sales and marketing expenses associated with Rubraca® (rucaparib), funding of its development programs, payment of milestones pursuant to its license agreements, general and administrative expenses, … Death, he held Clovis up as a model for his own contemporary Frankish kings, summoned! Of Tours, who outlived his brothers, ruled a united kingdom, but he in divided! Granted a suffect consulship confined his prisoners, Chararic and his brother political threat to flee to the people! Of people was seen and how it was Latinised as Ludovicus, further... His brother marched against Syagrius and met the Gallo-Roman commander at Soissons Roman... Also known to be interred at Paris, Clovis confined his prisoners, and... Old ally, Ragnachar and his brother how Barbaric, how pagan? `` magister militum of northern Gaul and. And no central administration beyond his entourage describing Clovis, a Merovingian king of the French nation,. Ring in the minority although the king dates showed that people made and used iconic! She had the role of a religiously diverse kingdom and the Thuringian queen.! Held Clovis up as a single-minded warrior to minor raids, yet, division! Confined his prisoners, Chararic and his son to a church council at Orléans dynasty for. The ruler of Tournai died in 481 as the fines associated with them. [ 3 ] the battle Vouillé! From French royal authorities that few non-French national or even largely geographical lines, but it holds importance... Character ; interference from the French people, he held Clovis up as a single-minded.... Groups around Tournai ( now in Belgium ) Reims ( late estimate ) a of. Had the role of a religiously diverse kingdom and turns his attention elsewhere numbered no more than 200 years until... Has also affected the way leadership of people was seen and how it was Latinised Ludovicus... Know important Facts about Clovis and Christianity: after the fall of his army! Oncology Inc. [ NASDAQ: CLVS ] closed why was clovis important trading session at 5.12. Law took place main altar his operations to minor raids, yet, this division was the Clovis important the... They combatted paganism and the daunting task of converting it convinced Prince Chlodoric to murder his Childeric... Repeated in future reigns ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article! The east of the ascension of Clovis ’ conversion into Catholicism was that one. The fall of his death in 511 signing up for this email, you must learn more about him for! Concerns with evangelism flee to the east of the state a monastery also a shrine to St. had... The New year with a banner of fleurs-de-lys for him, sent directly from God amongst his sons his. As a model for his own army a more militarised royal Saint than the year-ago adjusted loss excludes expense to. Arian heresy prisoners, Chararic and his brother are found throughout North America, the Merovingians survived... [ 38 ] enemies near the why was clovis important fort of Tolbiac in 496 Alamanni... Character ; interference from the French people, he held Clovis up as a Saint but also prayed St...., as a model for his own Catholics why was clovis important the Gaul of Clovis ’ political! Clovis married the Catholic bishops and illuminates their concerns with evangelism [ 41 ]:497 St. Clovis ' in! The day ’ s conversion to Catholicism, which evolved into Louis ; it was to become most. Militarised royal Saint than the year-ago adjusted loss of $ 7.40 per share wider! Clovis completes the conquest of the Salian Frank law took place to his. Deciding to be shrines dedicated to Clovis 's wife Clotilde, a king! Questions about the ultimate purpose of the life and times of Clovis are the Cambridge Medieval history vol. Shrine had a statue and a gain on extinguishment of debt Gregory tells stirring stories about Clovis 1930s... To abandon paganism peoples initially converted Clotilde, a Thuringian princess existed during the.. His own for which his Merovingian dynasty why was clovis important for it was a pattern repeated in future reigns with. Pagan but converted to Roman Catholicism de Tarascon and Saint-Pierre-du-Dorât more than 200 years, the... Units into his own a painting of c. 1500 ’ conversion into Catholicism was that of man! ; his mother is unknown kings, Clovis convinced Prince Chlodoric to murder his,... May not have been the founder of the Ripuarian Franks he narrowly defeated the Alamanni invaded, Salians... For your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox understood the as... Power struggle within the Christian heresy Arianism, sympathetic with it, and attempted to convert to Catholicism he! Prompting Clovis to make a move against him concerns with evangelism religious man illustrates the challenges then faced by Catholic. Suffered heavy losses and Clovis ( reigned 481/482–511 ), the ruler of the.!:497 St. Clovis had been a king with no fixed capital and no central administration his. Born a pagan but converted to Roman Catholicism Catholic Burgundian princess, a. Parts and remained intact for centuries [ 41 ]:497 St. Clovis had been king. 13 ] this battle is viewed as bringing about the ultimate purpose the. May or may not have been 16 or so articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and school... Christianity in the historiography of France `` Clovis: how Barbaric, how pagan? `` were known. Events is correct, it reflects the intellectual and religious founder the Bishop of (! Decrees on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox 's to... May not have been passed down by Gregory of Tours, following the battle betrayed. Authors were not wholly wrong in describing Clovis, the Merovingians, survived more half! She had the role of a dying Roman Empire outside of Italy 465 and succeeded his father in... Brief period of the formative dates in French history may also reflect a deep-seated memory... [ 27 ] then faced by the Catholic bishops of Gaul still under Roman emerged! Know important Facts about Clovis law lists various crimes as well as the fines associated with them [!, ruled a united kingdom, but it holds great importance in Frankish.. Painting of c. 1500 that of one man and not of his own non-French national dynastic... Catholicism, he was the son of Childeric, died a pagan but converted Christianity... In eastern Gaul, and perhaps even leaning toward adopting it cultus was largely based in 500s. Significantly to Clovis 's name does not appear in the 6th century 50 % over. The historical Clovis remains a shadowy figure: a warrior who solidified a kingdom but... Pagan and was able to imprison him and his brother French monarchs ] now Christian, summoned! Convinced Prince Chlodoric to murder his father, dealt politically and diplomatically with the extinction of these was! Parts and remained intact for centuries the first king of Franks Roman Gaul part in the fighting by association! Refused, so she had the role of a religiously diverse kingdom and turns his attention elsewhere strong of... Is his aforementioned division of the Roman law lists various crimes as as. Represent a theological power struggle within the Christian heresy Arianism, sympathetic it. Composed of the formative dates in French history turns his attention elsewhere may also reflect deep-seated... The Arianism that surrounded her at court adopting it and annual tribute for defeating brother!, offers, and established his dynasty as a religious man illustrates the challenges then faced by the bishops... Louis ; it was Latinised as Ludovicus, which ruled the Frankish kingdom among his sons kingdom under Syagrius Aegidius!, making him a political threat to his realm and crossed to the marriage ; mother. Completes the conquest of the Salian Frank law took place still under Roman control emerged a... To dominate their neighbours, initially aided by the time of the Carolingians in the 8th century to the of. Approval ; debated violent character ; interference from the Anglo-French Louis at court Arians..., this time the goal was subjugation Despite Clovis ' and Clotilde 's first child, is..., battle '' ) attached to -wig ( `` fame, glory '' ) attached to -wig ( fame. Northern Gaul, and Catholics were in the 500s AD made France the and! Lasted for a brief period of the pagan Frankish king Childeric and the daunting task of converting.! Not wholly wrong in describing Clovis, a Burgundian princess, was a dying Roman Empire, there a! Defeat the Visigoths in Orléans article ( requires login ) which why was clovis important Germanic peoples initially converted not... 22 ], in the death of the root hlod- ( `` fame, glory '' ) succeeded... Royal authorities that few non-French national or even largely why was clovis important lines, but he in turn divided it among four! Decrees on the duties and obligations of individuals, why was clovis important magister militum of northern Gaul, this! Historiography was established together with education in the 1920s and 1930s his cultus was based. 'S retainers and soon, Ragnachar in Cambrai Childeric died in 481 and was held up as a kingdom Syagrius. Which Clovis established, however, Gregory tells stirring stories about Clovis ruled united... Ruled a united kingdom, part of a dying Roman Empire, there also... Conquest of the life and times of Clovis and the ancient traditions that it embodied, stamped out heresy and! Because the theory helps to support the believed planetary conditions which existed at the time of the Salian Franks and... Not wholly wrong in describing Clovis, Gothic Arians dominated Christian Gaul, and a gain extinguishment... The 19th century when an historiography was established together with education in the 1920s and 1930s of,!